Mechanical Stress Activates Smad Pathway through PKCδ to Enhance Interleukin-11 Gene Transcription in Osteoblasts
Mechanical stress rapidly induces ΔFosB expression in osteoblasts, which binds to interleukin (IL)-11 gene promoter to enhance IL-11 expression, and IL-11 enhances osteoblast differentiation. Because bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) also stimulate IL-11 expression in osteoblasts, there is a possibility that BMP-Smad signaling is involved in the enhancement of osteoblast differentiation by mechanical stress. The present study was undertaken to clarify whether mechanical stress affects BMP-Smad signaling, and if so, to elucidate the role of Smad signaling in mechanical stress-induced enhancement of IL-11 gene transcription.
Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress (FSS) induced phosphorylation of BMP-specific receptor-regulated Smads (BR-Smads), Smad1/5, in murine primary osteoblasts (mPOBs). FSS rapidly phosphorylated Y311 of protein kinase C (PKC)δ, and phosphorylated PKCδ interacted with BR-Smads to phosphorylate BR-Smads. Transfection of PKCδ siRNA or Y311F mutant PKCδ abrogated BR-Smads phosphorylation and suppressed IL-11 gene transcription enhanced by FSS. Activated BR-Smads bound to the Smad-binding element (SBE) of IL-11 gene promoter and formed complex with ΔFosB/JunD heterodimer via binding to the C-terminal region of JunD. Site-directed mutagenesis in the SBE and the AP-1 site revealed that both SBE and AP-1 sites were required for full activation of IL-11 gene promoter by FSS.
These results demonstrate that PKCδ-BR-Smads pathway plays an important role in the intracellular signaling in response to mechanical stress, and that a cross-talk between PKCδ-BR-Smads and ΔFosB/JunD pathways synergistically stimulates IL-11 gene transcription in response to mechanical stress.
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Syndicated from:PLoS ONE
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