Randomized Trial of Safety and Effectiveness of Chlorproguanil-Dapsone and Lumefantrine-Artemether for Uncomplicated Malaria in Children in The Gambia
by Samuel Dunyo, Giorgio Sirugo, Sanie Sesay, Cyrille Bisseye, Fanta Njie, Majidah Adiamoh, Davis Nwakanma, Mathurin Diatta, Ramatoulie Janha, Fatou Sisay Joof, Beth Temple, Paul Snell, David Conway, Robert Walton, Yin Bun Cheung, Paul Milligan
Chlorproguanil-dapsone (Lapdap), developed as a low-cost antimalarial, was withdrawn in 2008 after concerns about safety in G6PD deficient patients. This trial was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of CD and comparison with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) under conditions of routine use in G6PD normal and G6PD deficient patients with uncomplicated malaria in The Gambia. We also examined the effects of a common genetic variant that affects chlorproguanil metabolism on risk of treatment failure.
1238 children aged 6 months to 10 years with uncomplicated malaria were randomized to receive CD or artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and followed for 28 days. The first dose was supervised, subsequent doses given unsupervised at home. G6PD genotype was determined to assess the interaction between treatment and G6PD status in their effects on anaemia. The main endpoints were clinical treatment failure by day 28, incidence of severe anaemia (Hb<5 g/dL), and haemoglobin concentration on day 3.
One third of patients treated with AL, and 6% of patients treated with CD, did not complete their course of medication. 18% (109/595) of children treated with CD and 6.1% (36/587) with AL required rescue medication within 4 weeks, risk difference 12% (95%CI 8.9). 23 children developed severe anaemia (17 (2.9%) treated with CD and 6 (1.0%) with AL, risk difference 1.8%, 95%CI 0.3, P = 0.02). Haemoglobin concentration on day 3 was lower among children treated with CD than AL (difference 0.43 g/dL, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.62), and within the CD group was lower among those children who had higher parasite density at enrolment. Only 17 out of 1069 children who were typed were G6PD A- deficient, of these 2/9 treated with CD and 1/8 treated with AL developed severe anaemia. 5/9 treated with CD had a fall of 2 g/dL or more in haemoglobin concentration by day 3.
AL was well tolerated and highly effective and when given under operational conditions despite poor adherence to the six-dose regimen. There were more cases of severe malaria and anaemia after CD treatment although G6PD deficiency was uncommon.
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Syndicated from:PLoS ONE
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