Arabinosylated Lipoarabinomannan Skews Th2 Phenotype towards Th1 during Leishmania Infection by Chromatin Modification: Involvement of MAPK Signaling
by Parna Bhattacharya, Gaurav Gupta, Saikat Majumder, Anupam Adhikari, Sayantan Banerjee, Kuntal Halder, Suchandra Bhattacharya Majumdar, Moumita Ghosh, Shubho Chaudhuri, Syamal Roy, Subrata Majumdar
The parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani is the causative organism for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) which persists in the host macrophages by deactivating its signaling machinery resulting in a critical shift from proinflammatory (Th1) to an anti-inflammatory (Th2) response. The severity of this disease is mainly determined by the production of IL-12 and IL-10 which could be reversed by use of effective immunoprophylactics. In this study we have evaluated the potential of Arabinosylated Lipoarabinomannan (Ara-LAM), a cell wall glycolipid isolated from non pathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis, in regulating the host effector response via effective regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling cascades in Leishmania donovani infected macrophages isolated from BALB/C mice. Ara-LAM, a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) specific ligand, was found to activate p38 MAPK signaling along with subsequent abrogation of extracellular signal–regulated kinase (ERKs) signaling. The use of pharmacological inhibitors of p38MAPK and ERK signaling showed the importance of these signaling pathways in the regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 in Ara-LAM pretreated parasitized macrophages. Molecular characterization of this regulation of IL-10 and IL-12 was revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (CHIP) which showed that in Ara-LAM pretreated parasitized murine macrophages there was a significant induction of IL-12 by selective phosphorylation and acetylation of histone H3 residues at its promoter region. While, IL-10 production was attenuated by Ara-LAM pretreatment via abrogation of histone H3 phosphorylation and acetylation at its promoter region. This Ara-LAM mediated antagonistic regulations in the induction of IL-10 and IL-12 genes were further correlated to changes in the transcriptional regulators Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3). These results demonstrate the crucial role played by Ara-LAM in regulating the MAPK signaling pathway along with subsequent changes in host effector response during VL which might provide crucial clues in understanding the Ara-LAM mediated protection during Leishmania induced pathogenesis.
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