Effects of Ischemia on Lung Macrophages
by Aigul Moldobaeva, Nico van Rooijen, Elizabeth M. Wagner
Angiogenesis after pulmonary ischemia is initiated by reactive O2 species and is dependent on CXC chemokine growth factors, and its magnitude is correlated with the number of lavaged macrophages. After complete obstruction of the left pulmonary artery in mice, the left lung is isolated from the peripheral circulation until 5–7 days later, when a new systemic vasculature invades the lung parenchyma. Consequently, this model offers a unique opportunity to study the differentiation and/or proliferation of monocyte-derived cells within the lung. In this study, we questioned whether macrophage subpopulations were differentially expressed and which subset contributed to growth factor release. We characterized the change in number of all macrophages (MHCII int, CD11C+), alveolar macrophages (MHCII int, CD11C+, CD11B−) and mature lung macrophages (MHCII int, CD11C+, CD11B+) in left lungs from mice immediately (0 h) or 24 h after left pulmonary artery ligation (LPAL). In left lung homogenates, only lung macrophages increased 24 h after LPAL (vs. 0 h; p<0.05). No changes in proliferation were seen in any subset by PCNA expression (0 h vs. 24 h lungs). When the number of monocytic cells was reduced with clodronate liposomes, systemic blood flow to the left lung 14 days after LPAL decreased by 42% (p<0.01) compared to vehicle controls. Furthermore, when alveolar macrophages and lung macrophages were sorted and studied in vitro, only lung macrophages secreted the chemokine MIP-2α (ELISA). These data suggest that ischemic stress within the lung contributes to the differentiation of immature monocytes to lung macrophages within the first 24 h after LPAL. Lung macrophages but not alveolar macrophages increase and secrete the proangiogenic chemokine MIP-2α. Overall, an increase in the number of lung macrophages appears to be critical for neovascularization in the lung, since clodronate treatment decreased their number and attenuated functional angiogenesis.