Phenotypic Pattern-Based Assay for Dynamically Monitoring Host Cellular Responses to Salmonella Infections
by Xiaozhou Mou, Shuying Wan, Yifei Li, Shanshan Zhang, Mingjiao Sun, Fanglong Liu, Huiying Fu, Xue Zhang, Haiying Liu, Qian Cao, Yuehai Ke, Charlie Xiang
The interaction between mammalian host cells and bacteria is a dynamic process, and the underlying pathologic mechanisms are poorly characterized. Limited information describing the host-bacterial interaction is based mainly on studies using label-based endpoint assays that detect changes in cell behavior at a given time point, yielding incomplete information. In this paper, a novel, label-free, real-time cell-detection system based on electronic impedance sensor technology was adapted to dynamically monitor the entire process of intestinal epithelial cells response to Salmonella infection. Changes in cell morphology and attachment were quantitatively and continuously recorded following infection. The resulting impedance-based time-dependent cell response profiles (TCRPs) were compared to standard assays and showed good correlation and sensitivity. Biochemical assays further suggested that TCRPs were correlated with cytoskeleton-associated morphological dynamics, which can be largely attenuated by inhibitions of actin and microtubule polymerization. Collectively, our data indicate that cell-electrode impedance measurements not only provide a novel, real-time, label-free method for investigating bacterial infection but also help advance our understanding of host responses in a more physiological and continuous manner that is beyond the scope of current endpoint assays.
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