HIV-1 Promotes Intake of Leishmania Parasites by Enhancing Phosphatidylserine-Mediated, CD91/LRP-1-Dependent Phagocytosis in Human Macrophages
by Robert Lodge, Michel Ouellet, Corinne Barat, Guadalupe Andreani, Pranav Kumar, Michel J. Tremblay
Over the past decade, the number of reported human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1)/Leishmania co-infections has risen dramatically, particularly in regions where both diseases are endemic. Although it is known that HIV-1 infection leads to an increase in susceptibility to Leishmania infection and leishmaniasis relapse, little remains known on how HIV-1 contributes to Leishmania parasitaemia. Both pathogens infect human macrophages, and the intracellular growth of Leishmania is increased by HIV-1 in co-infected cultures. We now report that uninfected bystander cells, not macrophages productively infected with HIV-1, account for enhanced phagocytosis and higher multiplication of Leishmania parasites. This effect can be driven by HIV-1 Tat protein and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). Furthermore, we show for the first time that HIV-1 infection increases surface expression of phosphatidylserine receptor CD91/LRP-1 on human macrophages, thereby leading to a Leishmania uptake by uninfected bystander cells in HIV-1-infected macrophage populations. The more important internalization of parasites is due to interactions between the scavenger receptor CD91/LRP-1 and phosphatidylserine residues exposed at the surface of Leishmania. We determined also that enhanced CD91/LRP-1 surface expression occurs rapidly following HIV-1 infection, and is triggered by the activation of extracellular TGF-β. Thus, these results establish an intricate link between HIV-1 infection, Tat, surface CD91/LRP-1, TGF-β, and enhanced Leishmania phosphatidylserine-mediated phagocytosis.
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Syndicated from:PLoS ONE
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