Phosphorylation by Dyrk1A of Clathrin Coated Vesicle-Associated Proteins: Identification of the Substrate Proteins and the Effects of Phosphorylation
by Noriko Murakami, David C. Bolton, Elizabeth Kida, Wen Xie, Yu-Wen Hwang
Dyrk1A phosphorylated multiple proteins in the clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) preparations obtained from rat brains. Mass spectrometric analysis identified MAP1A, MAP2, AP180, and α- and β-adaptins as the phosphorylated proteins in the CCVs. Each protein was subsequently confirmed by [32P]-labeling and immunological methods. The Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation released the majority of MAP1A and MAP2 and enhanced the release of AP180 and adaptin subunits from the CCVs. Furthermore, Dyrk1A displaced adaptor proteins physically from CCVs in a kinase-concentration dependent manner. The clathrin heavy chain release rate, in contrast, was not affected by Dyrk1A. Surprisingly, the Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation of α- and β-adaptins led to dissociation of the AP2 complex, and released only β-adaptin from the CCVs. AP180 was phosphorylated by Dyrk1A also in the membrane-free fractions, but α- and β-adaptins were not. Dyrk1A was detected in the isolated CCVs and was co-localized with clathrin in neurons from mouse brain sections and from primary cultured rat hippocampus. Previously, we proposed that Dyrk1A inhibits the onset of clathrin-mediated endocytosis in neurons by phosphorylating dynamin 1, amphiphysin 1, and synaptojanin 1. Current results suggest that besides the inhibition, Dyrk1A promotes the uncoating process of endocytosed CCVs.
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