Analysis of Large Phenotypic Variability of EEC and SHFM4 Syndromes Caused by K193E Mutation of the TP63 Gene
by Jianhua Wei, Yang Xue, Lian Wu, Jie Ma, Xiuli Yi, Junrui Zhang, Bin Lu, Chunying Li, Dashuang Shi, Songtao Shi, Xinghua Feng, Tao Cai
EEC (ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, clefting; OMIM 604292) is an autosomal dominant developmental disorder resulting mainly from pathogenic mutations of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) of the TP63 gene. In this study, we showed that K193E mutation in nine affected individuals of a four-generation kindred with a large degree of phenotypic variability causes four different syndromes or TP63-related disorders: EEC, Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia (EE), isolated ectodermal dysplasia, and isolated Split Hand/Foot Malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Genotype-phenotype and DBD structural modeling analysis showed that the K193-located loop L2-A is associated with R280 through hydrogen bonding interactions, while R280 mutations also often cause large phenotypic variability of EEC and SHFM4. Thus, we speculate that K193 and several other DBD mutation-associated syndromes may share similar pathogenic mechanisms, particularly in the case of the same mutation with different phenotypes. Our study and others also suggest that the phenotypic variability of EEC is attributed, at least partially, to genetic and/or epigenetic modifiers.
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