Diabetes and Pre-Diabetes as Determined by Glycated Haemoglobin A1c and Glucose Levels in a Developing Southern Chinese Population
by Yong Hui Zhang, Wen Jun Ma, G. Neil Thomas, Yan Jun Xu, Xiang Qian Lao, Xiao Jun Xu, Xiu Ling Song, Hao Feng Xu, Qiu Mao Cai, Liang Xia, Shao Ping Nie, Hui Hong Deng, Ignatius Tak Sun Yu
The American Diabetes Association and World Health Organization have recently adopted the HbA1c measurement as one method of diagnostic criteria for diabetes. The change in diagnostic criteria has important implications for diabetes treatment and prevention. We therefore investigate diabetes using HbA1c and glucose criteria together, and assess the prevalent trend in a developing southern Chinese population with 85 million residents.
A stratified multistage random sampling method was applied and a representative sample of 3590 residents 18 years of age or above was obtained in 2010. Each participant received a full medical check-up, including measurement of fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, and HbA1c. Information on history of diagnosis and treatment of diabetes was collected. The prevalence of diabetes obtained from the present survey was compared with the data from the survey in 2002.
The prevalence of diabetes based on both glucose and HbA1c measurements was 21.7% (95% CI: 17.4) in 2010, which suggests that more than 1 in 5 adult residents were suffering from diabetes in this developing population. Only 12.9% (95% CI: 8.3) of diabetic residents were aware of their condition. The prevalence of pre-diabetes was 66.3% (95% CI: 62.7). The prevalence of diabetes and pre-diabetes which met all the three diagnostic thresholds (fast plasma glucose, 2 hour post-load plasma glucose, and HbA1c) was 3.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Diabetes and pre-diabetes as determined by HbA1c measurement had higher vascular risk than those determined by glucose levels. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 2.9% (95% CI: 2.0) in 2002 to 13.8% (95% CI: 10.2) in 2010 based on the same glucose criteria.
Our results show that the diabetes epidemic is accelerating in China. The awareness of diabetes is extremely low. The glucose test and HbA1c measurement should be used together to increase detection of diabetes and pre-diabetes.
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Syndicated from:PLoS ONE
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