Ginkgolide B Reduces Atherogenesis and Vascular Inflammation in ApoE−/− Mice
by Xiyun Liu, Gexin Zhao, Yan Yan, Li Bao, Beidong Chen, Ruomei Qi
To investigate whether ginkgolide B (a platelet-activating factor inhibitor) affects vascular inflammation in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice.
Methods and Results
Human platelets were used to evaluate the effects of ginkgolide B on platelet aggregation and signal transduction. Ginkgolide B attenuated platelet aggregation and inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) activation and Akt phosphorylation in thrombin- and collagen-activated platelets. ApoE−/− mice were administered a high-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks. Plasma platelet factor 4 (PF4) and RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted protein) were then measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry were used to determine atherosclerotic lesions. Ginkgolide B decreased plasma PF4 and RANTES levels in ApoE−/− mice. Scanning electron microscopic examination showed that ginkgolide B reduced aortic plaque in ApoE−/− mice. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated that ginkgolide B diminished P-selectin, PF4, RANTES, and CD40L expression in aortic plaque in ApoE−/− mice. Moreover, ginkgolide B suppressed macrophage and vascular cell adhesion protein 1 (VCAM-1) expression in aorta lesions in ApoE−/− mice. Similar effects were observed in aspirin-treated ApoE−/− mice.
Ginkgolide B significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions and P-selectin, PF4, RANTES, and CD40L expression in aortic plaque in ApoE−/− mice. The efficacy of ginkgolide B was similar to aspirin. These results provide direct evidence that ginkgolide B inhibits atherosclerosis, which may be associated with inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in activated platelets.
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Syndicated from:PLoS ONE
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