Staphylococcus aureus in Continuous Culture: A Tool for the Rational Design of Antibiotic Treatment Protocols
by Klas I. Udekwu, Bruce R. Levin
In vitro measures of the pharmacodynamics of antibiotics that account for the factors anticipated for bacteria in infected patients are central to the rational design of antibiotic treatment protocols. We consider whether or not continuous culture devices are a way to obtain these measures. Staphylococcus aureus PS80 in high-density continuous cultures were exposed to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, gentamicin, daptomycin and linezolid. Contrary to results from low density retentostats as well as to predictions of traditional PK/MIC ratios, daily dosing with up to 100× MIC did not clear these cultures. The densities of S. aureus in these cultures oscillated with constant amplitude and never fell below 105 CFU per ml. Save for daptomycin “treated” populations, the densities of bacteria in these cultures remained significantly below that of similar antibiotic-free cultures. Although these antibiotics varied in their pharmacodynamic properties there were only modest differences in their mean densities. Mathematical models and experiments suggest that the dominant factor preventing clearance was wall-adhering subpopulations reseeding the planktonic population which can be estimated and corrected for. Continuous cultures provide a way to evaluate the potential efficacy of antibiotic treatment regimes in vitro under conditions that are more clinically realistic and comprehensive than traditional in vitro PK/PD indices.
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Syndicated from:PLoS ONE
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